1822 Indian Peace Treaty
An Act of Congress in 1819 had established "Arkansaw" Territory. "Arkansaw,"
"Arkinsas," and "Arkansa" were variations in spelling used in the first few years. By 1822, with
the aid of the consistent and highly visible use of "Arkansas" in Woodruff's Arkansas Gazette,
the spelling had become standardized, with only few exceptions.
During this year and the next, Woodruff had paper problems with the Gazette and, at one point, suspended publication for two weeks when a yellow fever quarantine of a steamboat caused
delay in paper delivery. Then, low water cut off shipments for almost six months.
In February, a United States Army regiment commanded by Colonel Matthew Arbuckle
arrived at Fort Smith to replace Major William Bradford and his chronically short-handed
company. Bradford and his soldiers had held the thankless job of peacemaker in this, the furthest
frontier of the United States, since 1817.
Governor Miller spent several months trying to satisfy government obligations made to the
Indians and attempting to settle disputes between tribes. In September, he successfully
negotiated a peace treaty between the Osage and Cherokee tribes. Growing tired of frontier life,
Miller then requested a leave of absence for the approaching spring and summer to visit family
and friends "at the East." Crittenden was ready to take over as acting governor.
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